Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition triggered by witnessing or experiencing a traumatizing event. There is a lot of research to determine how someone develops PTSD and what qualifies as a traumatizing event since what may be traumatizing to one person may not be for another. Some of this research is dedicated to finding links between PTSD and sleep apnea, particularly Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), one of the three types of sleep apnea.
PTSD is commonly associated with war veterans in military conflicts, but it’s not only veterans who experience either PTSD and sleep apnea or a combination of the two. One study estimates that approximately 40 percent of people — regardless of military service — have both PTSD and sleep apnea.
One well-known symptom of PTSD is nightmares, but are there any links between these types of sleep issues, PTSD, and sleep apnea? If so, how much is known about the links between these conditions, and how can someone manage to experience each condition at once?
Can PTSD Cause Sleep Apnea?
One study concluded that veterans with PTSD are at a higher risk of developing chronic stress, high blood pressure, and sleep deprivation. Participants ranged from 21 to 59 years old, and 93 percent of participants were male. Subjects were monitored for a period of time, and doctors began to draw links between the severity of their PTSD symptoms and the risk of developing OSA. The doctors eventually concluded that nearly seventy percent were found to be at high risk for OSA.
The PTSD and sleep apnea research was unique in that it wasn’t based around the normal symptoms that could lead to the development of sleep apnea—like obesity or older age—but rather with the present sleep issues the PTSD patients were experiencing, which demonstrated how the issues may increase their risk for developing sleep apnea in their lifetime.
This provided further understanding of other conditions that may trigger sleep apnea. As a result, the U.S. Department of Defense was advised to screen all veterans for sleep apnea secondary to PTSD, regardless of the severity of their PTSD symptoms, age, or weight, since they are already at risk.
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The Connection Between PTSD and Sleep Apnea
There’s plenty of scientific evidence about the benefits of CPAP regardless of other underlying conditions, particularly for patients with high blood pressure. One study found that adhering to CPAP therapy for more than 70 percent of the time can help decrease blood pressure and related stress.
While the normal signs and symptoms of sleep apnea are typically based on age and weight, in PTSD patients, these factors don’t seem to matter. Rather, it’s usually existing sleep disorders and chronic stress that put them at a higher risk for developing sleep apnea. In addition to nightmares, other symptoms of PTSD include flashbacks of the event, anxiety attacks, and irrational thoughts about the event. These symptoms can occur within days, months, or even years after the event.
There is also evidence that adhering to CPAP therapy, despite its obvious benefits, is still a challenge. This is because there are several other side effects related to PTSD and sleep disturbances, and it’s easy to see why: there are over 80 different types of sleep-related conditions. Conducting research on comorbidity, the medical term for someone with multiple overlapping conditions, on every sleep-related condition would be nearly impossible.
Why Sleep Apnea Treatment Is Important
Like PTSD, OSA is not something to be taken lightly. When left untreated, it can lead to serious health issues like high blood pressure, weight gain, heart disease, memory problems, and can even cause a stroke. These factors put even more stress on the body, worsening the chronic stress most PTSD patients already experience.
Veterans whose sleep apnea developed as a result of their PTSD can seek help from the VA disability for sleep apnea treatment. The most common way to treat sleep apnea, and what has been found most successful in reducing PTSD-related sleep disorders, is with the use of a CPAP machine.
The good news is sleep apnea treatment is readily available. If you’re unable to adjust to a CPAP machine, you can explore alternatives to CPAP that may still provide the symptom relief for both PTSD and sleep apnea.
1. Colvonen, Peter J et al. “Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans.” Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine vol. 11,5 513-8. 15 May. 2015, doi:10.5664/jcsm.4692
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4 thoughts on “PTSD and Sleep Apnea – The Dangerous Combination You Need To Know About”
I’m a 60 us veteran,I do have PTSD,and I have a great deal of
Trouble sleeping,or I sleep to hard.
My wife saids I sore, I do have nightmares of when I got stabbed
And robbed in service.
And I’m very jumpy.im 5,8 181 lbs
A non smoker a non drinker and no drugs.
I’ll be doing a home sleep study
Hey Donald, thank you for your service to our country! I’m glad to hear that you will be having a sleep study. Please feel free to reach us with any questions or concerns by calling 1-800-356-5221, or e-mail us at: firstname.lastname@example.org.
We wish you the best!
Very interesting article, however I must take issue with one point – I disagree that OSA is easily treatable. For many of us who are prescribed CPAP therapy, it is a tough road. You only need to read the comments in online CPAP groups to know how much people struggle to adapt. It took me two months and a lot of experimentation to learn to finally adjust to having that piece of plastic and silicone clamped on to my face. But I was motivated because I had been diagnosed with atrial fibrillation which is also correlated with OSA. (And it was well worth sticking with it, my quality of life had improved so much since I began treatment.) There is a 40% non-compliance rate in CPAP treatment. Insurance companies are well aware of this and require proof of compliance to continue paying for treatment.
No, it is not easy. For some it may be, but for many of us it is not.
Hi Betty, my apologies for the delayed response. Thank you for your feedback and I’m glad you made the decision to stick with your therapy. I totally agree with you as, the timeframe to become acclimated and reap the benefits of CPAP therapy does vary widely from patient to patient.
The Author’s intention is to inform readers that there are treatments available for Sleep Apnea. The Author, does acknowledge that some CPAP users may not be able to adjust to the use of a CPAP machine and in these instances there are alternative treatment options available.
For further questions, or concerns, please feel free to reach us at: 1-800-356-5221, or you may e-mail us at: email@example.com.
I wish you continued success with your CPAP therapy!